Particles in a jet

palabos particles iconThis is a complete showcase of particles interacting with each other and interacting with a fluid flow. The particles solve Newton's law of motion: the force is computed from the relative fluid velocity (with friction), and from the interaction with nearby particles (with a repulsive potential that goes like r^{-6}). Like everything else, the simulation of particles is fully parallel in Palabos, and the particle-particle interaction is achieved through efficient hashing. In this way, a large number of particles is easily handled.

 

 

The first animation shows the behavior of particles injected one by one into a geometry with a conical shape. Air is injected from below and propels the particles upwards, while the gravity pulls them back downwards. The particles rebounce from the wall of the cone and from each other (they are impenetrable).

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In the second animation, time is accelerated, and we witness the cone getting saturated by particles. This shows how accurately the pairwise particle interaction is resolved: the bottom particles get an upward motion from the flow and push on the other ones, until the top particles spill over. The whole system is, at this point, in an almost incompressible state.

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